News

Apr, 2018: Zukunftstag 2018. Two pupils of the Gymnasium Horn came to visit the University of Bremen and created their own website with wordpress.

Apr, 2018: We got invited by KUKA to showcase our demo at the European Robotics Forum 2018 in Tampere, Finland

Feb, 2018: The House of Science, Bremen hosts an exhibition about local scientists and science projects with collaborators around the world. One of the featured exhibits is a demo of our Autonomous Surgical Lamps, developed by Jörn Teuber of the Computer Graphics and Virtual Reality group. The exhibition will be open until the 21st of April (photos).

Feb, 2018: The University of Bremen participates in the opening of a research laboratory in Bangkok.

Nov, 2017: 2017 VRST Best Poster Award Winner. Michael Bonfert, Melina Cahnbley, Inga Lehne, Ralf Morawe, Gabriel Zachmann and Johannes Schöning are winning the award for the poster titled "Augmented Invaders: A Mixed Reality Multiplayer Outdoor Game."

Nov, 2017: Organizers of the French VR conference and trade show Laval Virtual immersed themselves into a variety of different virtual environments where they learned about current projects of the Computer Graphics & Virtual Reality lab at the University of Bremen (full report, in German).

Sep, 2017: Founding Everyday Activity Science and Engineering (EASE). EASE is a interdisciplinary research center at the University of Bremen that investigates everyday activity science & engineering. For more Information click here.

Jun 17, 2017: Haptic and hand tracking demos at the Open Campus 2017.

Feb-Apr 2017: David Vilela (Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, University of Coruna, Spain) visited our lab. He is working on benchmarks to compare different intersection calculation methods in collisions, and also different force models.

Feb 2017: G. Zachmann and J. Teuber visited the Mahidol University in Bangkok, Thailand as part of a delegation from the University of Bremen. The goal of the visit was to foster the cooperation between the two universities and lay ground-work for future colaborations.

Jun 2016: Radio Bremen visited our lab to film the works of the Creative Unit "Intra-Operative Information" for a news magazine on the local TV station. Click here for the film at Radio Bremen. And Click here for the same film on our Website.

May 16, 2016: Patrick Lange was honored with the SIGSIM Best PhD Award at the ACM SIGSIM PADS Conference 2016.

Jun 19-21, 2015: G. Zachmann gives invited talk at the DAAD-Stipendiatentreffen in Bremen, Germany.

Jun 2015: Haptic and hand tracking demos at the Open Campus 2015.

Dec 08-10, 2014: ICAT-EGVE 2014 and EuroVR 2014 conferences at the University of Bremen organized by G. Zachmann.

Sep 25-26, 2014: GI VR/AR 2014 conference at the University of Bremen organized by G. Zachmann.

Sep 24-25, 2014: VRIPHYS 2014 conference at the University of Bremen organized by G. Zachmann .

Feb 4, 2014: G. Zachmann gives invited talk on Interaction Metaphors for Collaborative 3D Environments at Learntec.

Jan 2014: G. Zachmann got invited to be a Member of the Review Panel in the Human Brain Project for the Competitive Call for additional project partners

Nov 2013: Invited Talk at the "Cheffrühstück 2013"

Oct 2013: PhD thesis of Rene Weller published in the Springer Series on Touch and Haptic Systems.

Jun 2013: G. Zachmann participated in the Dagstuhl Seminar Virtual Realities (13241)

Jun 2013: Haptic and hand tracking demos at the Open Campus 2013.

Jun 2013: Invited talk at Symposium für Virtualität und Interaktion 2013 in Heidelberg by Rene Weller.

Apr 2013: Rene Weller was honored with the EuroHaptics Ph.D Award at the IEEE World Haptics Conference 2013.

Jan 2013: Talk at the graduation ceremony of the University of Bremen by Rene Weller.

Oct 2012: Invited Talk by G. Zachmann at the DLR VROOS Workshop Servicing im Weltraum -- Interaktive VR-Technologien zum On-Orbit Servicing in Oberpfaffenhofen, Munich, Germany.

Oct 2012: Daniel Mohr earned his doctorate in the field of vision-based pose estimation.

Sept 2012: G. Zachmann: Keynote Talk at ICEC 2012, 11th International Conference on Entertainment Computing.

Sep 2012: "Best Paper Award" at GI VR/AR Workshop in Düsseldorf.

Sep 2012: Rene Weller earned his doctorate in the field of collision detection.

Aug 2012: GI-VRAR-Calendar 2013 is available!

Virtual Reality and Physically-Based Simulation WS 17/18


Virtual Reality (VR) is a research area at the intersection of computer graphics, physically-based simulation, and 3D human-computer interaction (HCI). VR and 3D realtime computer games share a lot of algorithmic challenges: novel interaction technologies and interaction metaphors in virtual environments (in particular, intuitive and direct metaphors), immersion and presence, and real-time rendering. Another important topic is physically-based simulation in real-time, which tries to simulate real-world phenomena such as fire, cloth, the behavior of rigid objects when colliding with each other, fluids, or objects made of deformable material.

Over the past two decades, VR has established itself as an important tool in several industries, such as manufacturing (e.g., automotive, airspace, ship building), architecture, and pharmaceutical industries. During the past few years, we have been witnessing the second "wave" of VR, this time in the consumer, in particular, entertainment markets.

In this course, we will first look at the fundamental methods, and then go on to more advanced algorithms that are needed to build complex and full-fledged VR systems or real-time computer games. Example topics are 3D interaction, physically-based behavior of objects, acoustic rendering, haptics, and collision detection.

The assignments will be mostly practical ones, based on the cross-platform game engine Unreal. Participants will start developing with "visual programming", and later use C++ to solve the assignments.
You are encouraged to work on assignments in small teams.

Some of the topics to be covered (tentatively):

  1. Introduction, basic notions of VR, a few applications
  2. VR technologies: displays, tracking, input devices, software design
  3. Stereo rendering
  4. Error correction: tracking correction, filtering
  5. Techniques for real-time rendering
  6. Fundamental immersive interaction techniques: gesture recognition, navigation, selection, grasping, menues in 3D
  7. Complex immersive interaction techniques: world-in-miniature, action-at-a-distance, magic lens, etc.
  8. Particle systems
  9. Spring-mass systems
  10. Force feedback: rendering forces
  11. Collision detection
  12. Acoustic rendering

Note: this list is just tentative and subject to change during the semester.

News

Exams will take place on Feb 28 &emdash; please go to Studip to sign up for a slot.

Slides

The following table will, eventually, contain all the topics that were covered in this class, the accompanying slides, exercise sheets, and frameworks for solving the programming exeercises. (This table will be filled week by week.)

Week Topics Slides Exercise
sheets
Frameworks
1. Orga stuff
Introduction: definitions, applications, immersion, fidelity, presence,
PDF0 PDF1 Assignment 1 IGR CSV template
2. Intro 2: body ownership illusion, history, Milgram's continuum
Scenegraphs: immediate / retained mode, semantics of nodes and edges, special issues with light sources,
PDF1 PDF2
3. Scenegraphs 2: shared geometry (instancing), thread-safe scenegraphs, distributed rendering, fields & routes concept, types of nodes, the Phong model for specification of the material, indexed face set, OBJ file format, FBX file format, PDF Assignment 2
4. Scenegraphs 3: hierarchical transformations, routes & events, behavior graph, KV pool.
Displays and stereo rendering 1: depth cues, human visual system and stereopsis, horopter and fusion area, multiplexing techniques for stereo images (polarization, shuttering, color filtering), immersive didplays / immersive projection technologies
PDF1 PDF2
5. Stereo rendering 2: correct stereo projection, hypo- and hyper-stereo, issues with stereo rendering (depth aliasing, convergence-focus incongruity, incorrect viewpoint, stereo violation, depth blur, too much parallax), model of user's head, coherent virtual workspace, multiplexing for multiple users, automultiscopic display, pre-distortion for HMDs, PDF Assignment 3 Laggy Jump Evaluation
6. Dies Academicus
7. Real-time rendering 1: simulator sickness, latency and its sources, view-independent rendering, prioritized rendering, level-of-detail techniques, static/dynamic/psychophysiological LOD selection, predictive LOD selection PDF Assignment 4
8. Real-time rendering 2: dynamic LODs, progressive meshes, view-dependent LODs, portal culling, state sorting using online sorting buffer algorithms, stereoscopic image warping, latencies with conventional rendering, reducing latency using time warping
Input Devices: degrees of freedom, multimodality, virtual trackball, directness continuum, isotonic vs isometric, tracking, data gloves, locomotion devices.
PDF1 PDF2
9. Interaction techniques 1: Universal Interaction Tasks, design of user interfaces, gesture recognition, the navigation task (wayfinding & locomotion), taxonomies as a design tool, abstract representation of the user for navigation, navigation metaphors (point-and-fly, scene-in-hand, two-handed, hands-free, walking in place, et al.), 3D navidget, user models (power law of practice, Hick's law, Fitts's law), PDF
10. Interaction techniques 2: iso-/non-isomorphic techniques, control-display ratio, go-go technique, task decomposition of selection task, selection techniques: ray-based & cone-based techniques, flexible pointer, friction surface (bent ray), eye-hand mismatch, cone-based technique with ranking, balloon selection, object manipulation (grasping and moving), taxonomy of grasping, Natural User Interaction, principles for interaction design: action-at-a-distance, image plane interaction, proprioceptive interaction, world-in-miniature, magic lenses, redirected walking and related techniques, PDF Assignment 5
11. Particle systems: Newton's Laws, dynamics/kinematics, Euler integration, phase space, definition of particle systems, forces from physical effects, non-physical effects, collision handling, rendering of particle systems, alpha blending, flames & fire, procedural modeling of plants, the concept of streaming architectures PDF
12. Mass-spring systems: definition, single spring-damper element, explicit Euler integration, instability and error accumulation with explicit Euler integration, Runge-Kutta, Verlet integration, constraints, implicit integration, tangent stiffness matrix, comparison to explicit integration, mesh creation for volumetric objects, PDF Assignment 6 Mass-spring framework
13. Haptics: applications, devices, the haptic loop, human haptic sense and human factors, simulation factors, haptic textures, buzzing, intermediate representations, software architecture, impedance and admittance, the surface contact point method, voxmap-pointshell method, friction in one contact point, PDF
14. Collision detection: motivation, definitions, collision detection pipeline, broad/narrow phase, plane-sweep technique, separating planes algorithm (for convex objects), hierarchical coll.det., bounding volume hierarchies, types of BV's, separating axis lemma for convex polyhedra, inner sphere trees, sphere packings, proximity computation using ISTs, penalty forces using ISTs.
PDF

Literature

Warning: these text books can only give you a general introduction to the field of VR! Most of the topics taught in class will not be covered by any of these text books directly -- in fact, AFAIK there are no text books that cover these topics. Therefore, I recommend to attend class.

If you are thinking of buying some of these books, then I suggest to consider buying a used copy of them -- very often, you can find them at a fraction of the price of a new copy. The following are two very good internet sites for finding inexpensive used copies of books: Abebooks and BookButler.

Assignments

In order to acquire the "Schein", you will have to do a number of assignments. These will be mostly small practical programming assignments (based on a freely available VR system).

Help and documentation on the Unreal Engine:

Online Literature and Resources on the Internet

Literature and Resources on X3D/VRML
Since X3D/VRML is no longer the platform for the practical exercises in this course, I have demoted the links to X3D/VRML to this place.

Readings That Have Nothing to do With VR, but are Still Highly Recomended

Gabriel Zachmann
Last modified: Wed Jan 31 14:24:46 CET 2018