Research Questions

The main goal of this project is to research how much VR technology can influence humans behaviour. To reach this goal we two sets of research questions for the experiment of the project, and each research question companioned with several hypotheses. And the two sets of research questions and hypotheses are under below:
Research Question 01: What kind of interaction fidelity is necessary in an IVR so that behaviour change will take place in users?
Hypothesis H1: A virtual coral reef in which users can interact (an increased amount) would lead to a better self- confidence/hopefulness attitude.
Hypothesis H2: Increased interaction possibilities lead to less hopelessness.
Hypothesis H3: H1, H2 are associated with positive intention change behaviour in the real world.
Hypothesis H4: Increased interaction possibilities can lead to increased engagement.
Hypothesis H5: H4 (within an IVR) is associated with a positive intention to change behaviour.
Hypothesis H6: Recorded observed Higher Emotional engagement within the IVR leads to higher self-reported behaviour change (or may conflict self-reporting vs observed).
Hypothesis H7: A created experience with emotional interaction between users and the environment in VR will constitute the intention of behaviour changing in reality.
Research Question RQ2: Do interactions in an IVR elicit behaviour change more effectively when set in a loss framing or in a gain framing?
Hypothesis H8: A higher fidelity interaction will elicit a more positive attitude towards the condition of the environment depicted.
Hypothesis H9: A more realistic, well-known gesture will elicit more long-lasting behaviour change intentions.
Hypothesis H10: A more realistic, well known in the context, the gesture will elicit more long-lasting behaviour change intentions, than fantasy movements with roughly the same effort.

2x2 Factorial study with high and low interaction fidelity within a loss and gain framing in an IVR.

Gain Framing Low Fidelity Gain Framing High Fidelity
Loss Framing Low Fidelity Loss Framing High Fidelity



To implement all the conditions immersive virtual reality projects, the virtual coral reef experiment was utilized to be the basic scene. Meanwhile, the IVR has then been extended with a new pawn and additional code to facilitate low and high interaction fidelity as well as the depiction of global loss and gain framing by changing visuals, like water quality. New animals and different types of trash have been added and distributed, to depict the IVR in a very polluted state.


Users can grab (High fidelity) or shoot(Low fidelity) by pulling the trigger. Every trash object in the IVR, thereby affecting the reef. Users can travel around the reef with an aqua scooter, which can be grabbed and steered by pointing the controller in the preferred direction. In the high fidelity condition, a net to collect and store trash is available. Users can collect trash by grabbing and putting a trash object into the net or by sweeping the net across trash items. If the scooter or the net happens to get lost, the user can re-spawn both by pressing the trackpad.

Gain Framing And Loss Framing

IVR in starting condition

                     ↙        ↘
IVR in loss condition;          IVR in gain condition

For the experiment design, global tick checks every 3 seconds whether the user is collecting trash or not. In the Gain Framing condition, a successful check improves the reef visuals exponentially (watercolour, fog density), otherwise, they remain constant. In the Loss Framing condition, a successful check stops the deterioration of the reef visuals, otherwise, they deteriorate exponentially on each tick.


IVR experience
according to
condition group
Post-Questionnaire directly after and a few weeks after

Questionnaire Design

Both the pre- and post-questionnaires are designed to collect data on various topics like emotional state, feeling of presence, ecological behaviour and general awareness during the VR-experience, utilising standardised questionnaires and specifically constructed ones.

Pre-Questionnaire (27 Questions total)Survey Link

▸ 11 on the current general state (motion sickness)
▸ 8 on consumer behaviour
▸ 8 on associations w.r.t coral reefs

Post-Questionnaire (96 Questions total and personal data) Survey Link

▸ 12 on presence in an IVR
▸ 13 on immersion / interaction fidelity
▸ 14 on the current general state
▸ 11 on the current emotional state
▸ 16 on awareness of the IVR depicted
▸ 4 on packaging and similarities between jellyfish and plastic bags
▸ 8 on future consumer behaviour
▸ 6 on future ecological behaviour
▸ 12 on games and hardware familiarity


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